Scan documents in a Linux desktop environment is as easy as in Windows. These are some programs you can use.

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XSane

XSane is a GUI (Graphical User Interface) for SANE, an interface for scanners. Xsane has a plenty of options (maybe too many for a new user) and you can scan a document and convert to an image or PDF. XSane window

Document Scanner (GNOME)

The default scanner in Ubuntu and other distros with the GNOME desktop environment is Document Scanner, also known as Simple Scan. As this name suggests, it’s a basic scanner software but it has options for selecting image quality, brightness and contrast, reordering pages, etc.

Document Scanner window

gscan2pdf

This software has a useful option called “Scan profiles” where you can create scan templates (with a particular scan resolution) so you don’t need to change parameters every time you need a high-res or low-res scan.

gscan2pdf window